Vitamins in Oral and Dental Health
Nutrition is directly related to dental health and beauty. The reason for this is both the oral and dental nutrition and the intake of nutrients that cause the cell tissues to be healthy.

Organic compounds that are not synthesized in the organism, which are necessary for people to live healthy, grow and reproduce, are called vitamins.

Vitamin deficiencies in humans occur as a result of insufficient intake, disturbance in intestinal absorption or an increase in need compared to consumption. Vitamins are divided into two as fat soluble and water soluble.

Vitamin A
It is found in the green pigments of plants such as turnips, spinach and cauliflower.

Vitamin A deficiency

Slows bone and tooth growth by reducing osteoblast and odontoblast activity. An increase in keratinization is observed in the oral cavity and mucosa. Saliva secretion decreases or disappears completely. As a result of dry mouth caused by decreased saliva, cracks occur in the gums and oral mucosa. When oral health is not taken care of, microorganisms settle in these cracks and cause infections. For this reason, the improvement in the oral tissue is delayed. Degeneration occurs in the collagen fibers and the periodontal gap widens. Again, in the deficiency of this vitamin, hypersementosis and delay in tooth eruption may occur.

An excess of Vitamin A

In the epithelium, degeneration, delay in healing, osteopurosis, prominent bone resorption in the alveolar bone, pigmentation, peeling and itching on the skin, menstrual disorders occur.


Vitamin D
Provides normal mineralization of bone. The daily dose of vitamin D in growing children, pregnant women and breastfeeding women is 400 UI. Most of this dose is provided by sunlight. Vitamin D is involved in the absorption of calcium from the intestine. Vitamin D is essential in bone formation.

Vitamin D deficiency

Rickets in children and osteomalesis in adults occur.

Vitamin E
Found in soybeans, corn, cottonseed oil, fresh greens and vegetables. The daily requirement is 12-12 IU. It is also found in eggs and meat. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. Vitamin E prevents the toxic products of oxidation oxidation, which are essential for cell elements. In the presence of vitamin E, the resistance of erythrocytes to hemolysis in hydrogen peroxide is increased. The passage of vitamin E through the placenta is limited. Babies can get enough vitamin E with milk.

Vitamin E deficiency

It can cause degeneration in the cell epithelium. Vitamin E deficiency causes disorder in muscle development in children.

Vitamin K
It is used to make prothrombin in the liver. In its absence, symptoms related to blood occur. It is synthesized by bacteria normally found in the intestines.

Vitamin K deficiency

This vitamin is very necessary for the body, as problems with bleeding coagulation occur.

Pridosine (Vitamin B6)
It is found in brewer's yeast, liver, rice, bran and wheat, as well as various vegetables. The daily requirement for adults is 2 milligrams of vitamin B6. PLP is a co-enzyme of many enzymes in amino acid, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism.

Vitamin B6 deficiency

Various symptoms occur in an adult. The first observed muscle weakness, fatigue and tendency to sleep. Seborrheic dermatitis is seen in the lips, nasal folds, around the eyes, around the cheeks, on the forehead, behind the ears and in the lower part of the neck. There is inflammation in the tongue and mouth. There will be cracks on the lip.

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
It is found in green vegetables, fish, meat, fruit and milk, legumes and especially peas. In the case of cooking, if the temperature rises above 100 degrees, it loses its vitamin property. Foods that are kept cold and frozen do not lose vitamin B1. An adult needs one milligram of Thiamine a day. Thiamine is essential for carbohydrate metabolism in the body.

Thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency

Beriberi disease is seen. Problems in the mouth include burning tongue, loss of taste, hypersensitivity to the oral mucosa. Thiamine and other B vitamins inhibit the growth of bacteria in human saliva.

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Milk and meat products are the main source of this vitamin. It is very resistant to heat. It does not lose its effect during cooking. It is spoiled by sunlight. Adults should get 1.2 milligrams a day. Various metabolisms in the body are effective in enzyme mechanisms.

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) deficiency

Its symptoms usually appear on the lips, tongue, eyes and skin. Inflammation occurs around the lip. There is a jagged and granular appearance on the tongue. It is referred to as the Geographic Language. Touching food and drinks on the tongue causes pain and burning sensation. In some cases, the tongue takes on a purplish, red or purple color.

Nicotinic Acid and Mycotinamide
The role of niacin is key in oxidation and reduction events as in riboflavin. As NAD and NADP compounds, niacin participates in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by providing electron transport in mitochondria.

Nicotinic Acid and Mycotinamide deficiency

A disease called pellegra occurs. The main symptoms of pellegra disease are encountered in the oral cavity. Burning sensation in the oral mucosa, the side of the lips and tongue are red and swollen. In later periods, the top of the tongue continues as red and swollen. Degenerations are also seen in the gum epithelium. Gingivitis, ulcers in the interdental papillae, enlargement of salivary glands, increase in salivary secretion. This vitamin is found in meat, liver, brewer's yeast and peanuts.


Biotin
It is found in brewer's yeast and egg yolk. It plays a role in various enzyme mechanisms in the body.

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
Animal origin foods are Vitamin B12 storage. These are liver and kidney, milk cheese. Vitamin B12 is not properly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract without a protein binding factor (intrinsic factor) secreted by the gastric mucosa. Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein structure and is secreted by the parietel cells of the stomach. Pernicious anemia is a vitamin B12 deficiency disease that develops as a result of the deficiency of intrinsic factor in the gastric mucosa. It can be corrected by intramuscular vitamin B12 injection. The amount needed daily is 2-5 micrograms. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism.

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) deficiency

Insufficient hemotopoesis, gastrointestinal tract disorders, improper myelin synthesis and general weakness enter. Vitamin deficiency affects cells in the bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. Erythroblasts cannot divide properly and transform into megaloblasts. This disrupts the normal levels of red blood cells and anemia occurs. Atrophic changes are seen in the digestive tract. Myelin degeneration occurs in the spinal cord. The patient complains of indifference and difficulty in walking. A lemon yellow color is seen on the skin. Pernicious anemia also has many oral symptoms. These are red spots on the tongue, which are found with burning and pain and are repeated. Papillae in the tongue are atrophied. There are red lesions on the cheek, throat mucosa and back of the tongue.

Folic acid (Pterolglutamitic acid)
Folic acid is found in liver, leafy green vegetables, and brewer's yeast. It is prepared in the small intestine flora. The World Health Organization recommends taking 200 gamma grams for adults, 50-100 grams for children, and 400 gamma grams during pregnancy and lactation. Folic acid plays an effective role in cell proliferation.

Folic acid (Pterolglutamitic acid) deficiency

Megaloblastic anemia picture occurs. Oral symptoms are glossitis, angular chelosis and gingivitis. Glossitis begins with swelling and redness of the tongue, followed by desquamation of the papillae and ulcers lined with a red ring. Angular chelosis and gingivitis are reminiscent of riboflavin deficiency. Folic acid deficiency occurs in malnutrition, pregnancy, malabsorption syndrome and chronic alcoholism. It has also been reported in patients taking anticonvulsant medication.


Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
Ascorbic acid is found in large quantities in citrus fruits, green peppers, tomatoes, fruits and often vegetables. More than 50 percent of ascorbic acid in foods is broken down during the cooking process. The recommended daily intake is 45-80 milligrams. It is absorbed quickly and easily from the small intestine similar to glucose. Vitamin C participates in many reactions. It is an important antioxidant.

Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) deficiency

The main disease that emerges is scurvy: it occurs in children fed with processed cow's milk and consuming very little of other foods, singles who prepare their own meals and take processed milk, cereals, bread and very little other foods (celibacy disease), and psychopathic people who fill their stomach with bizarre diets. When fed with foods lacking vitamin C, weakness, lack of appetite, stopping to grow, anemia, fever and decreased resistance to infection, swelling and inflammation in the gums, tooth loss, swelling in the wrist and foot joints, bleeding in the form of petechiae, fractures in the ribs and ribs, in the joint, muscle Bleeding occurs in and into the intestine due to capillary fragility. It is appropriate to recommend vitamin C against common cold. Vitamin C can cause diarrhea when taken as much as 1 gram. Likewise, since vitamin C acidifies urine, it can cause oxalate stones to precipitate in the urinary tract.


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